Morality and Critical Theory: On the Normative Problem of Frankfurt School Social Criticism
James Gordon Finlayson
I. The Problem of Normative Foundations: Habermas's Original Criticism of Adorno and Horkheimer: In The Theory of Communicative Action, Jürgen Habermas writes:
From the beginning, critical theory labored over the difficulty of giving an account of its own normative foundations ...1
Call this Habermas's original objection to the problem of normative foundations. It has been hugely influential both in the interpretation and assessment of Frankfurt School critical theory and in the development of later variants of it. Nowadays it is a truth almost universally acknowledged that any critical social theory in possession of normative...